The Vipava River originates at the western foot of the Nanos plateau. The karst water rises to the surface from large cracks and crevices at the junction between the impermeable flysch and the carbonate rocks that make up Nanos.The Vipava has seven permanent springs. The southernmost spring is Pri Kapelici (1), followed by the Pod Lipco (2) spring, which is used for the local water supply. The third group of springs (3) is located in the central delta of the Vipava springs. On the southern part of this delta, water springs out from many crevices under a house and gardens, and there is a larger spring just behind the former mill. The most abundant spring is just below the entrance to the artificial tunnel of the Vipava Cave (4). In addition to the mentioned two springs (3, 4), also feeding the central springs of Vipava, called Pod Skalco, are the waters in the impassable creviced tunnels, called Za Gradom (5). During high waters, a series of small jets appear from the rock crevices above the springs. Having features similar to the Za Gradom spring is the double spring Pod Farovžem (6, 7). There, the water runs to the surface from two separate crevices in a rock wall that is a few metres high.The water temperature of the permanent springs is low and fluctuates only slightly during the year, from 8.5 to 10˚C. This is because the Vipava springs receive water from the extensive hinterland of the high karst plateaus of Nanos and Hrušica. Tracking experiments have also proven the underground connections between the springs of the Vipava and the waters in the Pivka basin.The Vipava springs are protected as a natural monument, and they are part of a wider area of natural sights and cultural and historical monuments, called “Vipava – the core area with monuments and sights” (Decree declaring cultural and historical monuments and natural sights in the municipality of Ajdovščina, Official Gazette, No. 04/87).
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